The Unification Of Italy (Summary)

by Ben Alford

THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY (Summary)

– AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848, MOST LEADERS INITALYFAVOURED SOME SORT OF UNIFIED NATION. THEY WERE DIVIDED ON HOW TO ACCOMPLISH THIS UNIFICATION:

– MANY CATHOLICS FAVORED A FEDERATION OF ITALIAN STATES HEADED BY THE POPE.

– LIBERALS WANTED ANITALIANREPUBLIC.

– OTHERS FAVORED A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY UNDER THE KING OFSARDINIA, VICTOR EMMANUEL II.

– THE POWER BEHIND THE THRONE OF KING VICTOR EMMANUEL WAS THE “ARCHITECT OF ITALIAN UNITY,” COUNT CAMILLO CAVOUR.PIEDMONT, AMONG THE ITALIAN STATES, WAS TO PLAY A LEADING ROLE IN RESORGIMENTO. IN 1852, COUNT CAVOUR BECAME PRIME MINISTER OF THIS STATE.

– CAVOUR, WAS A MASTER OF “REALPOLITIK” – (POLITICS OF PRACTICAL REALITY) UNLIKE MAZZINI, WHO WAS TOO MUCH OF AN IDEALIST, AND GARIBALDI WHO WAS TOO MUCH OF A ROMANTIC REVOLUTIONARY.

– CAVOUR DISLIKED ABSOLUTISM AND BELIEVED IN PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT.

– CAVOUR ENTERED A SECRETALLIANCEWITHFRANCE, AND THEN BAITEDAUSTRIA, THE PRINCIPAL OBSTACLE TO ITALIAN UNIFICATION, INTO A WAR IN 1859.

– CAVOUR HAD PUSHED FOR PIEDMONT’S PARTICIPATION IN THE CRIMEANWARASAN ALLY OFFRANCEANDGREAT BRITAINAGAINSTRUSSIA.

– THIS ACTION HELPED OBTAIN COOPERATION FROM NAPOLEON III FOR THE COMING WAR WITHAUSTRIA.

-FRANCEENTERED THE WAR ONPIEDMONT’S SIDE. THE WAR ENDED IN A TRUCE ALTHOUGHAUSTRIAHAD SUFFERED SERIOUS SETBACKS. PIEDMONT, HOWEVER, WAS ABLE TO OBTAIN LOMBARDY FROMAUSTRIA.

– BY 1860 MANY OF THE SMALL ITALIAN STATES REVOLTED AGAINSTAUSTRIAAND BY PLEBISCITE JOINEDPIEDMONT.

– ACTING INDEPENDENTLY, GARIBALDI LED HIS 1,000 “RED SHIRTS” IN CONQUERING THE KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES (SICILYANDNAPLES), IN 1860.

– GARIBALDI RASHLY WANTED TO MARCH ONROME. THIS THREAT TO THE POPE WOULD HAVE PROVOKED THE FRENCH INTO FIGHTING FOR THE POPE.

– CAVOUR WISELY RUSHED TROOPS TONAPLESTO BLOCK GARIBALDI FROM HIS MARCH, AND TO PROTECT THE REVOLUTION.

– CAVOUR SHREWDLY WAITED FOR PEOPLE IN THE PAPAL STATES TO REVOLT, AND THEN UNDER THE PRETEXT OF RESTORING ORDER MOVED INTO MUCH OF THE PAPAL STATES EXCEPTROME. THUS HE WAS ABLE TO PEACEFULLY STOP GARIBALDI.

– THEKINGDOMOFITALYWAS PROCLAIMED ON MARCH 17, 1861 WITH VICTOR EMMANUEL II ITS FIRST KING. NOW ONLY VENEZIA ANDROMEWERE LACKING FROM COMPLETING ITALIAN UNITY. IN 1866, AFTERPRUSSIA’S VICTORY OVERAUSTRIAAT SADOWA, VENEZIA WAS SEIZED BYITALY.

-ROMEWAS FINALLY ADDED TOITALYIN 1870 WHEN FRENCH TROOPS, PROTECTING THE POPE, WERE WITHDRAWN TO FIGHT IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR.ROMETHEN BECAME THE CAPITAL OFITALY.


7 Comments

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.